--> Journal Publications

*39. Robertson BD, Sawicki GS, (In Press) "A benchtop biorobotic platform for in vitro observation of muscle-tendon dynamics with parallel mechanical assistance from an elastic exoskeleton ". J Biomech. Mar 21.(2017).  Supplementary Methods

        *This article was selected as the 2016 American Society of Biomechanics Journal of Biomechanics Award winner. 

38. Rosario MV, Sutton GP, Patek SN, Sawicki GS,  "Muscle-spring dynamics in time-limited, elastic movements ". Proc Biol Sci. Sep 14; 283(1838) (2016).

37. Danos N, Holt N,  Sawicki GS, Azizi E,  "Modeling age-related changes in muscle tendon dynamics during cyclical contractions in the rat gastrocnemius muscle". J Appl Physiol (1985). Oct 1; 124(4): 1004-1012 Epub Aug 4 (2016).

36. Takahashi KZ, Gross MT, van Werkhoven H, Piazza SJ, Sawicki GS, "Adding stiffness to the foot modulates soleus force velocity behaviour during human walking ". Nat Sci Rep. Jul 15; 6:29870 (2016).

*35. Sawicki GS, Khan N,  "A simple model to estimate plantarflexor muscle-tendon dynamics during walking with elastic ankle exoskeletons". IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. May; 63(5):914-923.  Epub 2015, Oct 15 (2016). Supplementary Methods

        *Invited submission to a special issue.  

34. Huang H, Crouch DL, Liu M, Sawicki GS, Wang D, "A cyber expert system for auto-tuning powered prosthesis impedance control parameters". Ann Biomed Eng.  May; 44(5) 1613-24. Epub 2015, Sep 25. (2016).

33. Sawicki GS, Sheppard P, Roberts TJ, "Power amplification in an isolated muscle-tendon unit is load dependent"J Exp Biol. Nov; 218(Pt22):3700-9. (2015).

32. Robertson BD, Sawicki GS, "Unconstrained muscle-tendon workloops indicate resonance tuning as a mechanism for elastic limb behavior during terrestrial locomotion". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. Oct 27; 112(43): E5891-8. (2015). Supplementary Text

31. Sawicki GS, Robertson BD, Azizi E, Roberts TJ, "Timing matters: Tuning the mechanics of a muscle-tendon unit by adjusting stimulation phase during cyclic contractions". J Exp Biol. Oct; 218(Pt 19): 3150-9. Epub Jul 31. (2015).

30.  Collins SH, Wiggin MB, Sawicki GS, "Reducing the energy cost of human walking using an unpowered exoskeleton". Nature. Jun 11; 522(7555): 212-5. Epub Apr 1. (2015). 
 Advance Online Publication, SupplementaryText, Exoskeleton Walking Video, Clutch Function Video

    --Nature Press Release, Nature Podcast
    --NCSU Press Release, NCSU PoWeR Lab Promo VideoSawicki - CMU RoboticsInstitute LectureNIH Press Release
    --CMU Press Release, CMU Exp. Biomechatronics Lab Promo Video, Add'tl Carnegie Mellon Media Materials, NSF Press Release

29. Takahashi KZ, Lewek MD, Sawicki GS,   "A neuromechanics-based powered ankle exoskeleton to assist walking post-stroke: A feasibility study". J Neuroeng Rehabil. Feb 25;12:23 (2015).

28. Farris DJ, Hampton AS, Lewek MD, Sawicki GS,  "Revisiting the mechanics and energetics of walking in individuals with chronic hemiparesis following stroke: From individual limbs to lower-limb joints". J Neuroeng Rehabil. Feb 27; 12(1): 24 (2015).

27. Mahon C, Farris DJ, Sawicki GS, Lewek MD,  "Individual limb mechanical analysis of gait following stroke". J Biomech. Apr 12; 48(6): 984-9. (2015).

*26. Zelik K, Takahashi KZ, Sawicki GS,  "Six degree-of-freedom analysis of hip, knee, ankle and foot provides updated understanding of biomechanical work during human walking". J Exp Biol. Mar; 218(Pt 6): 876-86. (2015).

        *This article was featured in the column 'Inside JEB'.

25. Farris DJ, Hicks J, Delp S, Sawicki GS,  "Musculoskeletal modelling deconstructs the paradoxical effects of elastic ankle exoskeletons on plantar-flexor mechanics and energetics during hopping". J Exp Biol. Nov 15; 217(Pt 22) 4018-28. (2014).

*24. Robertson BD, Farris DJ, Sawicki GS,  "More is not always better: Modeling the effects of elastic exoskeleton compliance on underlying ankle muscle-tendon dynamics". Bioinspir. BiomimNov 24; 9(4): 046018. (2014).

        *Note: The free body diagram in the model schematic of Fig. 1 has a printing error. Fg should be Fgrf on the output side of the pulley - Fig 1. with corrected free body diagram

*23. Robertson BD, Sawicki GS,  "Exploiting elasticity: Modeling the influence of neural control on mechanics and energetics of ankle muscle-tendons during human hopping". J Theor Biol. Jul 21; 353: 121-32. Epub Mar 16. (2014).

        *Note:  Equations for Metabolic Rate in Table 2 have errors in the inequalities. Should be Vce<0 for first line and Vce>=0 for second line. 

22. Shamaei K, Sawicki GS, Dollar A, "Estimation of quasi-stiffness of the human hip in the stance phase of walking"PLoS One. 8(12): e81841. Epub Dec 9. (2013).

21. Matta P, Myers J, Sawicki GS, "The influence of available reaction time on ball-player impact probability in youth baseball". Sports Health. Mar;7(2): 154-60. doi: 10.1177/1941738113498209. (2015).

20. Farris DJ, Robertson BD, Sawicki GS, "Passive elastic exoskeletons reduce soleus muscle force but not work in human hopping". J Appl Physiol. Sep 1; 115(5): 579-85 Epub Jun 20. (2013).

19. Shamaei K, Sawicki GS, Dollar A, "Estimation of quasi-stiffness and propulsive work of the human ankle in the stance phase of walking" . PLoS One. 8(3): e59935. Epub Mar 21. (2013).

18. Shamaei K, Sawicki GS, Dollar A, "Estimation of quasi-stiffness of the human knee in the stance phase of walking" . PLoS One. 8(3): e59935. Epub Mar 22. (2013).

*17. Farris DJ, Sawicki GS, "Linking the mechanics and energetics of hopping with passive elastic ankle exoskeletons". J Appl Physiol. Dec 15; 113(12): 1862-72. Epub Oct 11. (2012).

        *Erratum in: J Appl Physiol. 2013 Jul 15;115(2):293 - Fig 6B. with corrected y-scale

16. Richards C, Sawicki GS, "Elastic recoil can either amplify or attenuate muscle-tendon power depending on inertial versus fluid dynamic loading". J Theor Biol. Nov 21, 313:68-78. Epub Aug 8. (2012).

15. Wutzke CJ, Sawicki GS, Lewek MD,  "The influence of a unilateral fixed ankle on metabolic and mechanical demands during walking in unimpaired young adults". J Biomech. Sep 21, 45(14): 2405-10. Epub Jul 25. (2012).

*14. Farris DJ, Sawicki GS, "Human medial gastrocnemius force-velocity behavior shifts with locomotion speed and gait". Proc Natl Acad of Sci USA. Jan 17, 109(3): 977-82. Epub Jan 4. (2012).

        *Note: Units on velocity graphs from running in (Fig. 1F and Fig. S2E,F,G,H.) should be labeled mm/s, NOT m/s.

13. Farris DJ, Sawicki GS,  "The mechanics and energetics of human walking and running: a joint-level perspective". J R Soc Interface. Jan 7, 9(66): 110-8. Epub 2011 May 25. (2012).

12. Sawicki GS, Lewis CL, Ferris DP, "It pays to have a spring in your step". Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 37(3):130-8 (2009).

11. Sawicki GS, Ferris DP, "A pneumatically powered knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO) with myoelectric activation and inhibition". J Neuroeng Rehabil. 6(1):23 (2009).

10. Sawicki GS, Ferris DP, "Mechanics and energetics of incline walking with robotic ankle exoskeletons". J Exp Biol. 212(Pt 1):32-41 (2009).

9. Sawicki GS, Ferris DP, "Powered exoskeletons reveal the metabolic cost of plantar flexor mechanical work during walking with longer steps at constant step frequency". J Exp Biol. 212(Pt 1):21-31 (2009).

*8. Sawicki GS, Ferris DP, "Mechanics and energetics of level walking with powered ankle exoskeletons". J Exp Biol. 211(Pt 9):1402-1413 (2008).

*This article was featured in the column 'Inside JEB'.

7. Ferris DP, Sawicki GS, Daley, MA, "A physiologist's perspective on robotic exoskeletons for human locomotion". International Journal of Humanoid Robotics. 4(3):507-528 (2007).

6. Domingo A, Sawicki GS, Ferris DP, "Kinematics and muscle activity of individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury during treadmill stepping with and without manual assistance". J Neuroeng Rehabil. 4:32 (2007).

5. Sawicki GS, Domingo A, Ferris DP, "The effects of powered ankle-foot orthoses on joint kinematics and muscle activation during walking in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury ". J Neuroeng Rehabil. 3:3 (2006).

4. Gordon KE, Sawicki GS, Ferris DP, "Mechanical performance of artificial pneumatic muscles to power an ankle-foot orthosis". J Biomech. 39(10):1832-41 (2006).

3. Ferris DP , Gordon KE, Sawicki GS, Peethambaran A, "An improved powered ankle-foot orthosis using proportional myoelectric control". Gait Posture. 23(4):425-8 (2006).

2. Ferris DP, Sawicki GS, Domingo A., "Powered lower limb orthoses for gait rehabilitation". Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil. 11(2):34-49 (2005).

1a. Sawicki GS, Hubbard M, Stronge WJ, "Reply to Comment on "How to hit home runs: Optimum baseball swing parameters for maximum range trajectories", by G. S. Sawicki, M. Hubbard, and W. J. Stronge [Am. J. Phys. 71(11):1152-62 (2003)]". Am J Phys. 73(2):185-89 (2005).

1. Sawicki GS, Hubbard M, Stronge WJ, "How to hit homeruns: Optimum bat swing parameters for maximum range trajectories". Am J Phys. 71(11):1152-62 (2003).

*This article was highlighted in Science: 202.1655 (5 Dec 2003) and on the NPR radio program 'Day to Day' with Mike Pesca and Ira Flatow listen here.

--> Engineering Conference Proceedings (Peer Reviewed)

4. Elliot G, Sawicki GS, Marecki A, Herr H, "The biomechanics and energetics of human running using an elastic knee exoskeleton". Proceedings of the 13th Biannual International IEEE Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics, June 24-June 26: (2013).

3. Robertson BD, Sawicki GS, "Influence of parallel spring-loaded exoskeleton on ankle muscle-tendon dynamics during simulated human hopping". Proceedings of the 33rd Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, September 1-4: (2011).

*2. Wiggin MB, Collins SH, Sawicki GS, "An exoskeleton using controlled energy storage and release to aid ankle propulsion". Proceedings of the 12th Biannual International IEEE Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics, June 29-July 1: (2011).

        *This article was highlighted in Nature: 503.S16-17 (14 Nov 2013) -- 'Technology: Mobility Machines'.

1. Sawicki GS, Gordon KE, Ferris DP, "Powered lower limb orthoses: Applications in Motor Adapatation and Rehabilitation". Proceedings of the 9th Biannual International IEEE Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics, June 28-July 1: 206-11 (2005).

--> Manuscripts In Review

1. Blau SR, Davis LM, Gorney AM, Dohse CS, Williams KD, Lim JH, Pfitzner WG, Laber E, Sawicki GS,  Olby NJ, (In Review) "Quantifying center of pressure variability in chondrodystrophoid dogs". The Veterinary Journal. (2017).

--> Manuscripts In Preparation

7. Nuckols R,  Riemer R, Sawicki GS, (In Prep) "Mechanics and energetics of walking and running up and downhill: A joint-level perspective". Journal of Experimental Biology. (2017).

6. Westbrook A, Lewek MD, Huang H, Sawicki GS, (In Prep) "An ankle-foot orthosis with real-time vibrotactile biofeedback to encourage push-off and prevent foot-drop: A feasibility study". Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation. (2017).

5. Browne M, DiMeo A, Franz J, Sawicki GS, (In Prep) "Real-time feedback can alter center of pressure trajectory during human walking". Journal of Biomechanics. (2017).

4. Doering J, Franz J, Cole J, Sawicki GS, (In Prep) "Influence of muscle and tendon stiffness on cyclic contraction dynamics". Journal of Biomechanics. (2017).

3. Nuckols R, Sawicki GS,  (In Prep) "Speed-stiffness coupling during walking with passive elastic ankle exoskeletons". Science Robotics. (2017).

2. Nuckols R, Dick TJ, Sawicki GS,  (In Prep) "Elastic ankle exoskeletons reduce soleus force but not work during human walking". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. (2017).

1. Sawicki GS,  (In Prep) "Biologically inspired wearable robots for the lower limbs". Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews. (2017).

--> Conference Abstracts

62. Cox S, Sawicki GS, Rubenson J, (Podium) "RoboBird: A passive exo-tendon for guinea fowl". 41st Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 8-11, Boulder, Colorado (2017).

61. Dick N, Nuckols R, Sawicki GS, (Thematic Poster) "Tuned or not? Ultrasound measurements of soleus fascicle dynamics during human walking with elastic ankle exoskeletons". 41st Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 8-11, Boulder, Colorado (2017).

60. Doering JA, Sawicki GS, (Poster) "From hopping on land to treading in water: Understanding limits on muscle-tendon performance in changing environments". 41st Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 8-11, Boulder, Colorado (2017).

59. Green BA, Sawicki GS, Rubenson J, (Thematic Poster) "Energy cost of walking in a passive-elastic ankle-metatarsophalangeal exoskeleton". 41st Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 8-11, Boulder, Colorado (2017).

58. McCall JV, Philius SA, Nuckols RW, Sawicki GS, (Poster) "Performance of a powered ankle exoskeleton using neuromuscular model-based control over a range of walking speeds". 41st Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 8-11, Boulder, Colorado (2017).

57. Nuckols RW, Dick TJ, Franz JR, Sawicki GS, (Poster) "Using elastic ankle exoskeletons to counteract age-related structure-function deficits". 41st Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 8-11, Boulder, Colorado (2017).

56. Nuckols RW, Sawicki GS, (Thematic Poster) "Effect of speed on the mechanics and energetics of walking with an elastic ankle exoskeleton". 41st Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 8-11, Boulder, Colorado (2017).

55. Philius SA, McCall JV, Nuckols RW, Sawicki GS, (Poster) "Mechanics and energetics of walking with a powered ankle exoskeleton using neuromuscular model-based control -- a parameter study". 41st Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 8-11, Boulder, Colorado (2017).

54. Poppo MN, McCain EM, Dick TJ, Saul KR, Sawicki GS, (Poster) "Dynamic simulation of elastic ankle exoskeleton effects on plantarflexor muscle-tendon neuromechanics during walking". 41st Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 8-11, Boulder, Colorado (2017).

53. Punith LK, McKnight M, Narsipur S, Sawicki GS, (Thematic Poster) "Positive force feedback allows for faster and safer recovery in perturbed hopping -- at a cost". 41st Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 8-11, Boulder, Colorado (2017).

52. Rabani AS, Sawicki GS, Riemer R, (TBD) "Prediction equations for leg kinematics and kinetics during slope running". 41st Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 8-11, Boulder, Colorado (2017).

51. Dick TJ, Punith LK, Sawicki GS, (Talk) "How do we recover from falling in a hole? A joint-level analysis". XXVI Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics, July 23-27, Brisbane, QL, Australia (2017).

50. Nuckols R, Sawicki GS, (Talk) "Effect of elastic ankle exoskeleton assistance on soleus muscle dynamics during walking". XXVI Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics, July 23-27, Brisbane, QL, Australia (2017).

49. Sawicki GS, Nardelli P, Cope TC, (Poster) "A novel work loop approach for decoding sensory information in afferent nerves during cyclic muscle contractions". 46th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience (SfN), November 12-16, San Diego, California (2016).

48. Danos N, Holt N, Sawicki GS, Azizi E, (Poster) "Modeling muscle-tendon dynamics during walking in aged rats (Rattus norwegius)". 40th Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 2-5, Raleigh, North Carolina (2016).

47. Doering J, Sawicki GS, (Poster) "Changing environment dynamics can spontaneously shift muscle-tendon function during cyclic contractions". 40th Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 2-5, Raleigh, North Carolina (2016).

46. Giest TN, Sawicki GS, (Thematic Poster) "Speed-dependent, proportional myoelectric exoskeleton controller with adaptive gains". 40th Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 2-5, Raleigh, North Carolina (2016).

45. McKnight M, Narsipur S, Sawicki GS, (Poster) "Muscle-tendon model predicts positive force feedback leads to safer, not faster recovery from perturbation". 40th Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 2-5, Raleigh, North Carolina (2016).

44. Nuckols R, Sawicki GS, (Podium) "The goldilocks zone: Interplay of elastic exoskeleton assistance and walking speed on the mechanics and energetics of walking". 40th Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 2-5, Raleigh, North Carolina (2016).

43. Nuckols R, Giest TN, Philius S, Sawicki GS, (Poster) "Embodying human plantarflexor muscle-tendon physiology for neuromuscular model-based control of a powered ankle exoskeleton". 40th Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 2-5, Raleigh, North Carolina (2016).

*42. Robertson BD, Vadakkeveedu S, Sawicki GS, (Podium) "An in vitro approach for directly observing muscle-tendon dynamics with parallel elastic mechanical assistance". 40th Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 2-5, Raleigh, North Carolina (2016).
     *Winner 2016 American Society of Biomechanics Journal of Biomechanics Award

41. Browne MG, Sawicki GS, (Thematic Poster) "Development of a visual biofeedback system for center of pressure modification during gait". 39th Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 5-8, Columbus, Ohio (2015).

40. Doering JA, Sawicki GS, (Talk) "Influence of tendon stiffness on muscle-tendon interaction dynamics during cyclic contractions". 39th Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 5-8, Columbus, Ohio (2015).

39. Nuckols RW, Farris DJ, Riemer R, Sawicki GS, (Talk) "Redistribution of lower-limb joint power during uphill and downhill walking and running". 39th Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 5-8, Columbus, Ohio (2015).

38. Takahashi KZ, Gross MT, van Werkhoven H, Piazza SJ, Sawicki GS, (Poster) "The effects of added foot stiffness on soleus muscle fascicle behavior during human walking". 39th Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 5-8, Columbus, Ohio (2015).

37. Westbrook AE, Sawicki GS, (Thematic Poster) "Modifying ankle joint neuromechanics using an ankle foot orthosis with vibrotactile feedback during human walking". 39th Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 5-8, Columbus, Ohio (2015).

36. Bell EA, Takahashi KZ, Rider PM, Sawicki GS, Domire ZJ, (Poster) "Effect of plantar fascia stiffness on foot energy absorption during overground walking". 39th Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 5-8, Columbus, Ohio (2015).

35. Farris DJ, Sawicki GS, (Talk) "Paradoxical effects of elastic ankle exoskeletons on plantarflexor muscle mechanics and energetics". 7th World Congress of Biomechanics, July 6-11, Boston, Massachusetts (2014).

34. Zelik K, Takahashi KZ, Sawicki GS, (Talk) "Positively missing: Reassessing work production in human gait and the implications for assistive technology". 7th World Congress of Biomechanics, July 6-11, Boston, Massachusetts (2014).

*33. Mizrachi S, Riemer R, Sawicki GS, (Poster) "Prediction equations for leg kinematics and kinetics during slope walking and running". 7th World Congress of Biomechanics, July 6-11, Boston, Massachusetts (2014).  
        *2nd place: WCB M.S. Level Student Paper Award

32. Takahashi KZ, Lewek MD, Sawicki GS, (Poster) "A user-controlled powered ankle exoskeleton to drive gait modifications post-stroke". 7th World Congress of Biomechanics, July 6-11, Boston, Massachusetts (2014).

31. Robertson BD, Sawicki GS, (Poster) "Unconstrained workloops reveal frequency-phase coupling in compliant muscle-tendon unit".  7th World Congress of Biomechanics, July 6-11, Boston, Massachusetts (2014). 

30. Wiggin MB, Collins SH, Sawicki GS, (Poster) "Neuromechanics and energetics of walking with a simple passive elastic ankle exoskeleton". 7th World Congress of Biomechanics, July 6-11, Boston, Massachusetts (2014).

29. Mahon CE, Farris DJ, Sawicki GS, Lewek MD, "Individual limb mechanical analysis of gait following stroke". 37th Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, September 4-8, Omaha, Nebraska (2013).

*28. Takahashi KZ, Sawicki GS, "A user-controlled powered ankle exoskeleton to assist gait propulsion post-stroke". 37th Annual Meeting of American Society of BiomechanicsSeptember 4-8Omaha, Nebraska (2013). 
        *Top ten nomination for Clinical Biomechanics Award.

27. Farris DJ, Sawicki GS, "The effects of wearing a spring-loaded ankle exoskeleton on soleus muscle mechanics during two-legged hopping in humans". 36th Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 15-18, Gainesville, Florida (2012).

*26. Wiggin MB, Sawicki GS, "A passive elastic exoskeleton reduces the metabolic cost of walking using controlled energy storage and release". 36th Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 15-18, Gainesville, Florida (2012). 
        *Winner 2012 
American Society of Biomechanics President's Award.

25. Robertson BD, Sawicki GS, "More is not always better: Consequences of exoskeleton assistance in a compliant muscle-tendon system". 36th Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 15-18, Gainesville, Florida (2012).

24. Wutzke CJ, Sawicki GS, Lewek MD, "Influence of a fixed ankle on joint mechanics and metabolic cost of walking". 35th Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 10-13, Long Beach, California (2011).

23. Hampton A, Farris DJ, Sawicki GS, "Mechanics and energetics of post-stroke walking: Towards a muscle-level understanding". 35th Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 10-13, Long Beach, California (2011).

22. Robertson BD, Sawicki GS, "Controlling compliance: Feed-forward stimulation pattern influences elastic tuning during cyclic muscle-tendon contractions". 35th Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 10-13, Long Beach, California (2011).

21. Matta P, Myers J, Sawicki GS, "The influence of ball mass on youth baseball injury potential: A simulation study". 35th Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 10-13, Long Beach, California (2011).

20. Farris DJ, Sawicki GS, "Force-velocity behaviour of human gastrocnemius shifts at the walk to run transition". 35th Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 10-13, Long Beach, California (2011).

19. Farris DJ, Sawicki GS, "The mechanics and energetics of human walking and running: A joint-level perspective". 35th Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 10-13, Long Beach, California (2011).

18. Sawicki GS, Farris DJ, "Mechanics and energetics of human hopping with a passive-elastic ankle exoskeleton". 34th Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 18-21, Providence, Rhode Island (2010).

17. Farris DJ, Sawicki GS, "Spring-loaded ankle exoskeletons reduce metabolic cost and alter gastrocnemius fascicle behaviour in human hopping". 34th Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 18-21, Providence, Rhode Island (2010).

16. Wiggin MB, Collins SH, Sawicki GS, "A passive-elastic ankle exoskeleton using controlled energy storage and release". 34th Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 18-21, Providence, Rhode Island (2010).

15. Sheppard P, Sawicki GS, Roberts TJ, "Power augmentation in a compliant muscle-tendon system". 33rd Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 26-29, State College, Pennsylvania (2009).

14. Sawicki GS, Roberts TJ, "Isometric force production requires asymmetric muscle-tendon length trajectory". 33rd Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 26-29, State College, Pennsylvania (2009).

13. Sawicki GS, Azizi E, Roberts TJ, "Muscle activation timing influences muscle-tendon mechanical performance during cyclic contractions". North American Congress on Biomechanics, August 5-9, Ann Arbor, Michigan (2008).

12. Sawicki GS, Ferris DP, "Mechanics and energetics of incline walking with powered ankle exoskeletons". 31st Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 22-25, Palo Alto, California (2007).

11. Sawicki GS, Ferris DP, "Mechanics and energetics of level walking with powered ankle exoskeletons". 31st Annual Meeting of American Society of Biomechanics, August 22-25, Palo Alto, California (2007).

10. Domingo A, Sawicki GS, Ferris DP, "Kinematics and muscle activity in spinal cord injury patients during locomotor training with and without manual assistance". Fifth World Congress of Biomechanics, July 29-August 4, Munich, Germany (2006).

9. Sawicki GS, Ferris DP, "Mechanics and control of a knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO) powered with artificial pneumatic muscles". Fifth World Congress of Biomechanics, July 29-August 4, Munich, Germany (2006).

8. Gordon KE, Sawicki GS, Ferris DP, "Mechanical performance of artificial pneumatic muscles to power an ankle-foot orthosis". XXth Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics and 29th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, August 1-5, Cleveland, Ohio (2005).

7. Domingo A, Sawicki GS, Ferris DP, "Muscle activation during manually assisted treadmill training after incomplete spinal cord injury". XXth Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics and 29th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, August 1-5, Cleveland, Ohio (2005).

6. Sawicki GS, Domingo A, Ferris DP, "Therapist controlled powered lower limb orthoses to assist locomotor training". XXth Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics and 29th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Biomechanics, August 1-5, Cleveland, Ohio (2005).

5. Sawicki GS, Domingo A, Ferris DP, "Powered lower limb orthoses to assist gait rehabilitation after spinal cord injury". The Society for the Neural Control of Movement Annual Meeting, April 12-17, Key Biscayne, Florida (2005).

4. Sawicki GS, "Do we walk at the 'edge of chaos': Complexity in neuromechanical systems". XXth Proceedings of the Santa Fe Institute Complex Systems Summer School, (2004).

3. Sawicki GS, Benkoe G, Wantia J, Erb, P, "Coupled motivations for power, affiliation, and achievement: Modeling resource allocation dynamics in social organizations". XXth Proceedings of the Santa Fe Institute Complex Systems Summer School, (2004).

2. Sawicki GS, Peethambaran, A, Ferris DP, "Powered lower limb orthoses to assist locomotor training". Christopher Reeve Paralysis Foundation Spinal Cord Symposium, March 21-23, Oak Brook, Illinois, USA (2004).

1. Sawicki GS, Ferris DP, "A knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO) powered by artificial pneumatic muscles". XIXth Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics, July 6-11, Dunedin, New Zealand (2003).

--> Doctoral and Master's Theses

8. Browne MG,  "Neuromechanical adaptations to real-time biofeedback of the center of pressure during human walking". University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill  (M.S. - Mar. 26, 2016).

7. Westbrook A,  "Testing the functionality of a vibrotactile ankle foot orthosis to prevent foot drop and assist push-off". North Carolina State University (M.S. - Dec. 19, 2014).

6. Wiggin MB,  "Characterizing optimal performance of a passive elastic ankle exoskeleton during human locomotion". North Carolina State University (Ph.D. - Aug. 8, 2014).

5. Robertson BD,  "Linking form and function: Frequency-phase coupling in biological muscle-tendon unit and the impact of exoskeleton assistance". North Carolina State University (Ph.D. - Aug. 6, 2014).

4. Khan N,  "A data-driven muscle-tendon modeling framework to evaluate muscle level performance of ankle exoskeletons during human walking"North Carolina State University (M.S. - Aug. 8, 2013).

3. Mahon C,  "Individual limb mechanical analysis of gait following stroke"University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (M.S. - Apr. 4, 2013).

2. Hampton A,  "Linking mechanics and energetics of post-stroke walking: Towards a muscle-level understanding"North Carolina State University (M.S. - Jun. 27, 2012).

1. Matta P,  "Is youth baseball safe? A computational and experimental examination into reducing youth baseball injury potential"University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (M.S. - Apr. 20, 2012).

0. Sawicki GS,  "The mechanics and energetics of walking with powered ankle exoskeletons". University of Michigan (Ph.D. - 2007).

*Last Updated by GSS on: April 25, 2017